Tragedy and disaster strike when we least expect it. The recent shooting at an elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut, the massacre at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado and the unfortunate events of Hurricane Sandy are prime examples of how trauma and disaster can affect children and families. Parents should encourage their children to express their feelings and limit their media exposure to the tragedy.
Below are several things to keep in mind about how best to help your children cope offered by experts at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles.
Bradley Hudson, PsyD, Clinical Psychologist, Director of Community Mental Health at the USC University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities, a partnership with the Division of General Pediatrics at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles.
Karen Rogers, PhD, Psychologist, Program Area Leader for Project Heal, a comprehensive therapeutic service for children exposed to trauma and their families that is a part of the Audrey Hepburn CARES Program at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles.
Stephanie N. Marcy, PhD, Psychologist at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles and assistant professor of Clinical Pediatrics at Keck School of Medicine at USC.
Susan K. Gorry, Lead Child Life Specialist, Child Life Program at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles.
A Traumatic Event for Everyone
Marcy: “Seeing a school, with kids like themselves, going through something terrifying and horrible, will make this more real for children, and can result in vicarious traumatization, as happened with the 9/11 events.” Rogers: “While it is normal for people to be affected by an event like this, most children and adults cope well with their feelings and may not be permanently impacted. However, there are measures parents should take to lessen the effect on their children.”
Control the Messenger
Marcy: “Discussions of this event need to be tailored to be developmentally appropriate. Small children, if exposed to media coverage, are unlikely to distinguish this from a fictional event, and need not be told otherwise. School aged and adolescent children have the capacity to personalize and generalize such an event and are more likely to have related and realistic fears. Use this as an opportunity and excuse to spend close, quality time with your children, away from the television and media.” Hudson: “If your young child is a preschooler or younger and hearing the news again and again, he may not realize this is a singular event. He may think the event is repeating. It’s important to emphasize that the event is over.” Rogers: “Many families leave their TVs and radios on all day. The exposure can be confusing, so turn off the television.” Hudson: “You also don’t want your older child being immersed in it. To the extent possible, monitor their exposure. If it’s on TV, participate with them and reassure them that they are safe here.” Gorry: “Not every child needs to know what happened today. If your child hasn’t heard about the tragedy in Colorado, we don’t suggest starting the conversation. But you never know when your child might hear about it from another child or family. With each year that goes by, news gets out faster and it is important to understand what has happened and what your child may be feeling and how crucial your role is in helping your child express what they think or feel about what they saw today.”
Don’t Underestimate the Impact
Marcy: “Parents should not give too much information. If a child becomes aware of the event, parents should first listen, find out what the child knows, what the child’s thoughts and reactions are, and then respond to them at that level.” Rogers: “This event involves children and teens as victims and it happened at a movie about a super hero, and many children identify with the concept of the super hero and the villain. Parents should listen to their children and not discourage them from expressing their feelings.” Hudson: “With older kids, ask them what their friends are saying before asking them what they’re feeling. They may be too sensitive to express their own feelings.” Gorry: “If your child has heard about the tragedy, it is important for you not to ignore it or pretend that they haven’t heard about it. Encourage your child to ask questions so that you can fill in important details. You don’t need to provide them with every single detail, but for children, the factual questions may be what they ask about first. Once they have asked about the details, then they will be more likely to be ready to talk about their feelings.”
Put it in Perspective
Rogers: “There are bad people in the world, but these types of things don’t happen very often. We’re safe here and there are many adults who are working hard to make sure you are safe. We don’t have a lot of answers right now as to the ‘why.’ It’s hard to explain or understand what led to this.” Marcy: “Consider the main concern that all children – all people – have in the wake of such a horrible event: ‘Could this happen to us?’ Approach this question in a way that helps foster a sense of safety and security, and increases the child’s ability to rationalize why this will not happen to them, even if somewhat false. But parents shouldn’t be too dismissive either (i.e. “Oh that wouldn’t happen here”). Keep communications open and allow children to discuss their thoughts and concerns openly and honestly.”
Watch Children with Previous Exposure to Trauma
Marcy: “Look for signs of a trauma reaction in children – behavioral regressions, fear of separating from parents, toileting accidents, nightmares, withdrawal, change in eating habits, sudden somatic complaints, perseverating on talking about the event, hyperactivity/hyper arousal, decreased attention/concentration, school avoidance, disruptive behaviors.”
Rogers: “A child who has experienced previous trauma could be more impacted by this. They could cope by using play they had long since outgrown or suddenly lose skills. They could re-experience their past trauma or this trauma by playing it over again in their minds. They can talk a lot about it or experience nightmares, avoidance, numbing feelings or a reduced range of emotions. It’s not unlike a soldier who has been traumatized by war.”
Mourn the Loss
Gorry: “What we see over and over again at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles is that, as strong as parents’ desire to protect their children might be, a child’s desire to protect their parents could be even stronger. Even if children don’t hear about this tragedy, but see your negative reactions, they may react to that. Sometimes kids won’t tell you something if they think that telling you will make you cry, unless you share with them that it’s OK for them to see you cry. It’s much better for the entire family to cry with each other than to hold it in. Parents should feel comfortable saying, ‘That makes me really sad,’ and sharing their feelings with their child.”
Every Feeling is OK
Gorry: “After hearing about a tragedy like this, some kids may be sad for all the people who got hurt. Other kids might respond by saying that they are really happy because they saw someone in the news that looked like they were alive and doing fine. Or, your child might say that they are happy because they were not hurt or no one in their family was hurt. Just remember that, no matter what feeling your child has, that every feeling is appropriate at the time it is being felt. The best thing you can do as a parent is to acknowledge that your child’s feelings are OK.”
Rogers: “If your child seems more tightly wound – having difficulty sleeping and concentrating or experiencing extreme emotions for a couple of weeks, talk to your pediatrician, or a counselor. Seek extra support. There is effective therapy for trauma and it is helpful.”
About Children’s Hospital Los Angeles
Children’s Hospital Los Angeles has been named the best children’s hospital in California and among the top five in the nation for clinical excellence with its selection to the prestigious U.S. News & World Report Honor Roll. Children’s Hospital is home to The Saban Research Institute, one of the largest and most productive pediatric research facilities in the United States. Children’s Hospital is also one of America’s premier teaching hospitals through its affiliation since 1932 with the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California. For more information, visit CHLA.org.